Identity is the fact of being who or what a person or thing is. An individual often has qualities ,beliefs, looks, and expressions that are unique to them and identify as their personality. Each person shapes their identity based on their what they are exposed to; some of which could include music, movies, shows, and books. Cultural background, ethnicity and past or present experiences also help develop and shape a unique character or identity for a person (Dictionary, 2018). Four terms have come to challenge the definition of an individuals identity. Each term challenges the term of identity differently, and will be defined, addressed, and subjected to an example in this post. All four terms are examples of intertextuality. A term introduced by Julia Kristen in 1966. It is understood that two relationships occur when we read a text. A relationship known as the horizontal axis, which is the relationship between us and the author, and the vertical axis, a relationship between the text and other texts. Although its understood that the vertical axis provides us with the definition of intertextuality, both axes draw to our attention that no text exist as its own, and weened to recognise that previous works shape current texts and readings (schmoop, 2018).

The first term that challenges the term of identity is, pastiche. Pastiche is defined as a piece of art, music, literature, etc. that intentionally copies the style of someone else’s work or is intentionally in various styles, or the practice of making art in either of these ways (Dictionary, 2018). Pastiche commemorates the style of work copied as the identity of what is being replicated is not lost and understood with clarity due to obvious suggestions, phrases, or similarities seen in clothing, makeup, and accessories. An example of pastiche is the music video of the song “ Fancy by Iggy Azelea”. The genre and theme of the music video references the classic movie, Clueless, 1995. Seen throughout the music video, Iggy has replicated the “identity” of Cher Horowitz, the main character in the film, through her dress code, hair, make up and the plot of the movie.  The music video is filmed in a high school building and classroom, directly replicating a scene from the film. In addition to that, smaller details are replicated, like the technology of matching clothing together seen in the film is displayed at the beginning of the music video. Various scenes from the film are replicated and played out by Iggy throughout.

Another example of textuality is the term parody. A parody is the complete opposite of the term pastiche.  A parody is an imitation of the style of a particular writer, artist, or genre with deliberate exaggeration for comic effect (Oxford Dictionaries, 2018). Parody is seen very often as a form of comedy mocking a famous celebrity, movie, video, etc on youtube or in different forms of media. A great example of parody is the film “ Fifty shades of Black”, a prequel spoof of Fifty shades of Grey, the plot of the story in Fifty shades of Black is translated into a comedy by making the lead actor Christian Black the complete opposite of Christian Grey in the original film. The general plot of the story remained the same, an inexperienced college student undertakes an interview with the main character, a wealthy businessman who participates in a S&M sexual practice, later on developing a relationship. The parody contradicts how the lead character creates his wealth at the start of the film, and continues to demean the identity of the character in the original film, Fifty shades of Grey.

Homage is defined as respect shown towards someone or something you admire, or to a person in authority (, 2018). An example of the term is the music video “ Material Girl by Madonna” in 1995, referencing Marilyn Monroe performing ‘Diamonds are a Girl’s Best friend’ in the American musical comedy film “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes” from 1962. Various references have been made to the specific scene in the film, including the TV series, Gossip Girl, where one of the lead characters performs the scene in a dream in honour of Marilyn Monroe. The scene is replicated through various means, including the style of hair, makeup, jewellery, background and men in black tux.

The direct definition of bricolage (in art or literature) is construction or creation from a diverse range of available things (Oxford Dictionaries, 2018). The music video by Busta Rhymes – Gimme Some references several well known shows or famous “art work”, including Looney Tunes, Hannah Barbara, Who Framed Roger Rabbit? Disney, Tim Burton & The Mask.

Dictionary, i. (2018). identity Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Mar. 2018].

Dictionary, p. (2018). pastiche Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Mar. 2018]. (2018). Homage definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Mar. 2018].

Oxford Dictionaries | English. (2018). parody | Definition of parody in English by Oxford Dictionaries. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Mar. 2018].

Oxford Dictionaries | English. (2018). bricolage | Definition of bricolage in English by Oxford Dictionaries. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Mar. 2018].

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